Market Structure Reform and the SEC (Part 2)
Professor Coffee, in his piece in the Columbia CLS Blue Sky Blog, High Frequency Trading Reform: The Short Term and the Longer Term, raises structural concerns with the market and asserts that the SEC has been slow to implement reforms. As he colorfully notes: "[T]he SEC has studied high frequency trading at length, but seems unable to do much more than re-arrange the deck chairs on the Titanic." He then offers an explanation of sorts. The answer is not capture.
- Some will allege that the SEC has been “captured,” but that charge seems misplaced in this context, because the industry is itself intensely divided. The exchanges are doubtful about the “maker/taker” system that has become dominant in the wake of Regulation NMS, and the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”), the industry trade group, wants major reforms. But the dark pools are largely owned by major banks, who have a different agenda.
Instead, the answer is workload and a predilection for the status quo.
- Thus, the SEC’s inactivity seems better explained by two factors: (1) the SEC has been overextended by the demands of implementing Dodd-Frank and thus avoids issues that it can sidestep; and (2) in the field of market regulation, the SEC’s staff tends to worship at the Shrine of the Status Quo. Whatever practices have become prevalent are assumed to be efficient. But trading has evolved very rapidly since the adoption of Regulation NMS in 2007, and it is far from clear that any natural equilibrium has been reached.
Capture, of course, need not be by the entire industry but can be by a particular segment. So a divided industry does not preclude capture.
The explanation of worship of the status quo, however, overlooks a great deal. The Commission has indicated serious concern with market structure issues. The absence of any significant proposals to date have a number of likely explanations.
First, the area is exceedingly complex. Identifying problems and solutions is not always easy. Second, the Commission is divided politically; this probably makes consensus on reforms difficult. Third, there is almost certainly real concern that "reforms" may generate negative consequences that exceed any benefits. After all, a number of areas of concern are explained or at least influenced by the existing regulatory construct. Maker-taker payments, for example, operate within the caps on access fees in Regulation NMS. Significant changes will almost certainly have unintended consequences.
Fourth, the very division within the securities industry makes reform difficult. The Commission is at its best when implementing regulatory reform that reflects industry consensus. A consensus can ensure that no single sector bears the brunt of systemic reform. That is not the case here. Many of the proposed reforms would disproportionately affect particular segments of the securities industry.
Fifth, some of the complaints about high frequency trading have a luddite feel. At least some of the advantages of HFT arise out of advances in technology. Any regulatory intervention needs to prevent harmful practices without unnecessarily restricting technological advances.
Finally, the Commission knows that anything it does will potentially be subject to litigation (although hopefully the change in the make-up of the D.C. Circuit should reduce concerns with this possibility) and hearings on the Hill.
This is not to say that Eric Schneiderman and private law suits don't have a role in prodding the SEC. They do. Schneiderman has been at the forefront of raising the advance peak problem whereby high frequency traders receive information before the rest of the market (his pressure on wire services to end advance disclosure is an example). The Lanier case illustrates some of the problems associated with the distribution of proprietary data by exchanges before it appears in the CTS.
So the cases are less about changing the worshiping practices of the SEC and more about pointing the Agency in the right direction.
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