Staff Guidance, Accredited Investors, and Civil Unions
CorpFin put out some staff interpretations of the standards for accredited investors. They are dated July 3, 2014 and can be found here.
The definition of accredited investor in Rule 501 of Regulation D (17 C.F.R. 230.501) provides a net asset test. The test looks to the assets of the investor singularly or together with a spouse. See Rule 501 ("Any natural person whose individual net worth, or joint net worth with that person's spouse, at the time of his purchase exceeds $1,000,000"). Use of the term "spouse" is limiting and predates the advent of civil unions.
One query addressed by the staff was whether assets jointly owned "with another person who is not the purchaser's spouse" can be "included in determining whether the purchaser satisfies the net worth test in Rule 501(a)(5)?" The staff had this to say:
- Yes, assets in an account or property held jointly with a person who is not the purchaser's spouse may be included in the calculation for the net worth test, but only to the extent of his or her percentage ownership of the account or property.
In other words, the full value of the asset cannot be included; only the actual value attributed to the investor. The answer also suggests that the SEC will accept a valuation based upon percentage ownership (say 50-50), the formula that would presumably be used in connection with ownership in common. Joint ownership provides that the survivor takes the entire property (the definition is here). The SEC's approach, therefore, does not take into account the value associated with survivorship. Nonetheless, it is easy and straightforward.
The more significant concern is the exclusion of values related to non-spouses. The term "spouse" is not defined (certainly not in Regulation D and apparently not in the securities laws). While there is presumably no issue that "spouse" includes persons involved in same sex marriages, the issue of "civil unions" is far from clear.
Civil unions and civil partnerships have become a permanent part of our legal landscape and social order. State statutes permitting the relationships have indicated that civil unions/partnerships are designed to have the same rights and benefits as marriage. The staff has not, however, explicitly taken the position that these relationships are included in the term "spouse."
In other circumstances, the Commission has included the concept of "spousal equivalent." The term “spousal equivalent” was first employed in 2000 when the Commission amended the standards for auditor independence. The term was defined as “a cohabitant occupying a relationship generally equivalent to that of a spouse.” The Commission has not, however, addressed whether the term includes civil unions or civil partnerships.
The issue is in play with respect to the crowdfunding proposal. My comment letter discussing this issue at length (in the context of the crowdfunding proposal) can be found here. The easiest solution would be for the staff to issue guidance clarifying that spouse includes partners in a civil union/partnership. To the extent that does not occur, the ongoing analysis of the accredited investor definition should include a recommendation that the rule be amended to explicitly include these relationships in the income/net asset tests.
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