Libra is a forthcoming cryptocurrency offered by the Libra Association, a Swiss non-profit formed by 28 investors, including Facebook’s subsidiary Calibra, Visa, Mastercard, and Uber. Each investor pledged $10 million to the project. (Murphy & Bond, Financial Times). Since the announcement of the coin in June, Facebook has been Libra’s principal cheerleader. (Id.)In that time, Libra has faced criticism over regulatory concerns, and even its claim of being a cryptocurrency. Libra is unlike other cryptocurrenciesin that the Libra Association will have authority over the coin. Where other cryptocurrencies have decentralized blockchain ledgers and are not issued by a central authority, the Libra Association will issue Libra and validate Libra-coin transactions. (Canellis, NextWeb).Read More
The Strategic Hub for Innovation and Financial Technology (“FinHub”) of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) released a framework for analyzing whether a contemplated sale of cryptocurrency, or tokens, is an “investment contract.” (FinHub Staff, SEC). The Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”) and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”) both include investment contracts in their definition of securities. (15 U.S.C. §§ 77b(a)(1); 78c(a)(10)). If a cryptocurrency meets the requirements of an investment contract, it is a security subject to registration and regulation under the Securities Act and Exchange Act. The framework released by the SEC applies existing legal precedent to the cryptocurrency context. (FinHub Staff, SEC).Read More
Best known for its role in the rise of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, blockchain is a revolutionary technology that has the potential to transform how business transactions are conducted. For now, blockchain is primarily applied in digital financial transactions, like cryptocurrencies, but it presents a lot of opportunities for a wide variety of industries—from home entertainment to real estate to contract drafting —and beyond. This short article offers a brief introduction to blockchain, provides insight about its current uses, and summarizes some future applications.Read More
In SEC v. Riel, No. 5:15-CV-1166 (MAD/DEP), 2017 BL 342140 (N.D.N.Y. Sept. 27, 2017), the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York granted in part and denied in part the Security Exchange Commission’s (“SEC”) motion for summary judgment against Charles Riel III (“Riel”), and granted the SEC’s motion for default judgment against REinvest, LLC (“REinvest”) (collectively “Defendants”), for Defendants’ violations of Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”), Rule 10b-5 thereunder, and Section 17(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”), and Riel’s alleged violations of Sections 20(a) and 20(e) of the Exchange Act, and Section 15(b) of the Securities Act.Read More
In Dorian LPG Ltd., 2017 BL 229502 (June 29, 2017), Dorian LPG Ltd. (“Dorian”) asked the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) to permit the omission of a shareholder proposal submitted by SEACOR Holdings Inc. ("Shareholder"), requesting Dorian amend its bylaws to require shareholder approval prior to the adoption of any rights plan and to require the redemption of rights issued under existing rights plan. The SEC issued the requested no action letter allowing the exclusion of the proposal under Rule 14a-8(i)(11).Read More
This post is part of an ongoing series that examines the way stock exchange independence rules relate to director compensation. We are for the most part including companies from 2017’s Fortune 500 and using information found in their 2017 proxy statements.
NASDAQ and the NYSE have similar rules with respect to director independence. NYSE Rule 303A.01 requires that each listed company’s board of directors be comprised of a majority of independent directors. A director does not qualify as “independent” if he or she has a “material relationship with the company.” NYSE Rule 303A.02(a).Read More